The most important sectors of Bulgaria’s economy are industry, wholesale and retail trade, transport, accommodation and food services, public administration, defence, education, human health and social work activities.
The economic crisis resulted in a fall in employment between 2008 and 2013, and by 2025 it is projected that employment will still not have recovered its pre-2008 level. Many job losses were in the construction and manufacturing sectors, but employment in business and other services increased slightly over the same period. Future employment growth in Bulgaria to 2025 will be concentrated in this sector, with many job opportunities found in elementary occupations.
In the period to 2025, Bulgaria can expect to experience a decrease in demand for high and medium-skilled workers, whilst demand for low-skilled workers will increase markedly. In the same period, the share of Bulgaria’s labour force with high level qualifications is projected to rise, and the share of the labour force with medium level, low level or no qualifications to fall.
Bulgaria’s working-age population (15-64) is expected to fall by 2025, although rates of labour market participation will remain around the same level. Over the coming decades, Bulgaria is expected to develop one of the larger old-age dependency ratios in the EU28.