European Skills Index across Member States in 2016

across Member States in 2016

Skills Development

Skills Development represents the training and education activities of the country and the immediate outputs of that system in terms of the skills developed and attained. Sub-pillars are included to distinguish compulsory education, and other education and training (lifelong learning activities). The compulsory education sub-pillar comprises 3 indicators to measure quality, participation and achievement in compulsory education: pre-primary pupil-to-teacher ratio; share of population aged 15-64 with at least upper secondary education; and reading, maths & science scores (aged 15). The third indicator corresponds to one if the EU education and training targets for 2020, namely to reduce the underachievement in reading, maths and science below 15%. The training and other education sub-pillar comprises 3 indicators to measure participation and achievement in lifelong learning activities: participation in recent training; participation in VET; and achievement of high computer skills. The first indicator corresponds to one of the EU education and training targets for 2020, namely to reach 15% adult participation in learning. Detailed information on the definitions and the background of these indicators can be found in the Technical Report.

Skills Activation

Skills Activation includes indicators of the transition from education to work, together with labour market activity rates for different groups of the population, to identify those which have a greater or lesser representation in the labour market. The transition to work sub-pillar comprises 2 indicators to measure transition from education to employment: early leavers from training; and recent graduates in employment. The first indicator corresponds to one of the EU education and training targets for 2020, namely to reduce the early leavers from education and training below 10%. The second indicator corresponds to another of the EU education and training targets for 2020, namely to reach the employment rate of recent graduates of 82%. The labour market participation sub-pillar comprises 2 indicators to measure activity rates of different groups of the population: activity rate of the ‘core’ working population (25-54 year olds); and the youth activity rate (20-24 year olds). Detailed information on the definitions and the background of these indicators can be found in the Technical Report.

Skills Matching

Skills Matching represents the degree of successful utilisation of skills, the extent to which skills are effectively matched in the labour market. This can be observed in the form of jobs and mismatches which include unemployment, shortages, surpluses or underutilisation of skills in the labour market. Sub-pillars are included to distinguish skills under-utilisation and skills mismatch. The skills under-utilisation sub-pillar comprises 2 indicators to measure different aspects of skills under-utilisation: long-term unemployment; and the underemployment of part-time workers (those who declare that they work part-time because they are unable to find full-time work). The skills mismatch sub-pillar comprises 3 indicators to measure different aspects of surpluses or underutilisation of skills in the labour market: higher education mismatch (those with higher education that have a job that does not require it); ISCED 5-8 proportion of low wage earners (tertiary graduates that are low wage earners); and qualification mismatch (the extent to which each employee’s education attainment level matches the modal education attainment level for each occupation in each industry). Detailed information on the definitions and the background of these indicators can be found in the Technical Report.