The speed and nature of globalisation, technological change and innovation, changes in work organisation, environmental change and demographic trends take very different forms across G20 countries. But in all of them, they are affecting what kind of work is done, who carries it out and where and how it is carried out. These transformations are affecting many traditional jobs and employment relations while creating new job opportunities in emerging economic activities. Some of these shifts risk widening existing inequalities and marginalising some groups in the labour market. Labour market policies, as well as policies affecting markets for goods and services, can facilitate the required adaptation while offering support to the workers directly affected by changes so as to foster employability, productivity, innovation, and enhanced growth and a better share of its benefits.