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Reports & publications

2020 European Skills Index Technical report

03/2020
This technical report accompanies the release of the 2020 version of the European Skills Index (ESI) developed for Cedefop. The methodological decisions made in constructing the Index have implications for the subsequent interpretation and understanding of the results. The first part of this r...
Reports & publications

Sustainable inclusion of migrants into society and labour market

07/2019
Currently, roughly 22.3 million third-country nationals were living in the European Union (4.4% of the total EU population). How do we ensure that migrants and refugees fully participate in economic, cultural and social life? This report looks into the different policies, initiatives and pract...
Other resources

Refugee skills and labour market needs: fact sheets

07/2019
In 2017, the global population of forcibly displaced people increased to 68.5 million, compared with 65.6 million in 2016. Among these, 25.4 million were refugees. Most refugees live in developing countries of asylum, struggling to prove themselves in economies which are unable to absorb...
Guides & toolkits

Refugee skills and labour market needs

07/2019
Most refugees live in developing countries of asylum, struggling to prove themselves in economies which are unable to absorb and make full use of their labour market potential. As a result, their skills often remain unused and become obsolete over time. Key challenges for Europe include sharing t...
Reports & publications

Skills mismatch and productivity in the EU

07/2019
This paper analyses different dimensions of skills mismatch (notably ‘macro-economic skills mismatch’, ‘skills shortages’, and ‘on-the-job skills mismatch’) and their empirical relationship with labour productivity. Macro-economic skills mismatch arises when the skills distribution differs betwee...
Other resources

Cedefop Skills System Country Performance Infographics - 2018 European Skills Index

06/2019
Cedefop 2018 European Skills Index presents a series of infographics summarising the relative performance for each one of Europe’s Member States Skills System. The analysis is based in three different areas: skills development, skills activation and skills matching. Skills development assesses th...
Reports & publications

Skills for green jobs in France: an update (2018)

06/2019
Executive summary In 2015 there were 440 000 full-time jobs classified as eco-activities, whilst green occupations represented 144 000 jobs and greening occupations represented nearly four million jobs. In the field of skills anticipation, France is characterised by strong stakeholder and social...
Reports & publications

Skills for green jobs in Germany: an update (2018)

06/2019
Executive summary This report provides up-to-date information on skills for green jobs in Germany since 2010, based on desk research and 11 expert interviews. It presents information on environmental employment and on the development of green policies. It reports on regular and occasional studie...
Reports & publications

Skills for green jobs in Spain: an update (2018)

06/2019
Executive summary This report focuses on the changes that have taken place in Spain since 2010 as a response to the skills demanded by the labour market in relation to the greening of the economy. The economic crisis negatively affected the attention paid to greening due to general budgetary cut...
Reports & publications

Skills for green jobs in the United Kingdom: an update (2018)

06/2019
Executive summary This report covers developments since Cedefop’s report on Skills for Green Jobs (2010). It presents evidence on changes in the green economy, employment and skills, and the main legislative changes and their drivers. Since 2010, employment levels in low carbon and environm...