Romania has experienced a fall in the number of wage-earning employees since the beginning of the century. This has been explained with reference to high rates of inactivity recorded by the working-age population (15-64), the large number of people working in subsistence farming, and the outward migration of labour (mostly to elsewhere in the EU), bringing about a loss of human capital. Similarly, the extent of early school leaving also has affected the competitiveness of Romania’s workforce.
Looking to the future, there will be modest employment growth, but employment levels in 2030 are expected to remain below their pre-2008 crisis levels. Most employment growth will be in professional services, health & social care and education sectors. Most new job opportunities will be for agricultural workers and legal & social professionals. When it comes to total job openings (including replacements for vacated jobs), Romania will need similar shares of people with all qualification levels over the period to 2030. Although the total demand for people with low qualifications will be smallest, it will still represent one in every four job openings – third highest share in the EU.