Executive summary
This report provides up-to-date information on skills for green jobs in Germany since 2010, based on desk research and 11 expert interviews. It presents information on environmental employment and on the development of green policies. It reports on regular and occasional studies to anticipate green skill needs. It shows that vocational education and training (VET) for new green occupations plays a minor role compared to ‘greening’ VET for established occupations and that continuing vocational education and training (CVET) offerings are manifold, but participation is low because of weak incentives and low transparency. Programmes to promote skills for green jobs, including efforts within the framework of the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) World Action Programme, are described. It is noted that many previous programmes did not have a persistent impact. With few exceptions, skills for green jobs are not a focus of Active labour market policies (ALMPs).
The report shows that the private sector plays an important role in skills training and that the federal set-up and the tradition of consensus-oriented social partners constitutes a complex and elaborate institutional setting although this is not an obstacle to green skills development. The report concludes with some recommendations.