This paper has been commissioned by the European social partners ETUC, BUSINESSEUROPE, CEEP and UEAPME, on 21 December 2012 in relation to external expertise on “Skills needs in greening economies”. The “Skills needs in greening economies”, project takes place within the context of the INTEGRATED PROGRAMME of the EU Social Dialogue 2013-14. It serves to underline the important role played by trade unions, employers’ organisations and individual employers in supporting the Europe 2020 strategy’s goal of turning the EU into a smart, sustainable and inclusive economy capable of delivering high levels of employment, productivity and social cohesion. 2