The service sector is the largest employment sector in the Polish economy, although the industry sector is also relatively large. Industrial activities include shipbuilding and the production of fertilisers and petrochemicals, machine tools, electrical machinery, electronics, and cars. There is a general view that the labour market needs to become more flexible if the economy is to increase its growth potential.
Looking to the future, employment will not have recovered to its pre-2008 financial crisis level by 2025. In this period, most employment growth will be in transport and distribution, and most job opportunities for professionals. Poland is expected to experience an increase in demand for high-skilled workers, whilst demand for medium- and low-skilled workers is set to decrease. Meanwhile, the share of Poland’s labour force with high level qualifications is projected to increase, whilst the share of workers with medium, low or no qualifications is expected to fall.
Poland’s working-age population (15-64) is projected to drop slightly in the period to 2025, with labour market participation remaining at almost the same level. Poland, like many other Member States, faces an ageing population; over the longer-term future, Poland’s old-age dependency ratio will be amongst the highest in the EU. This will increase the demand for training by the economically active population, which in turn will require expansion of the training system.