The main sectors displaying persistent vacancy filling difficulties are the hospitality sector, the building and construction sectors and the ICT sector. The ICT sector exhibits particular shortages of analysts, software developers and systems technicians. The main labour shortages in Austria are among engineering professionals and associate staff, construction workers and electricians, as well as machinery and metal workers. Bottleneck vacancies predominantly appear in technical/industrial occupations and related crafts. A shortage of health associate professionals is observed in the health sector. With the exception of vacancies for nursing associate professionals, which have seen a slight improvement, all bottlenecks have worsened or remained at similar levels since 2008. Data on the nature of the shortages were not available.